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Final draft of Phase-ID report

?Dear Colleagues

Please find attached the final draft of the report of the
Working Group on Crystallographic Phase Identifiers. It differs
from the previous draft (#2) only in a few minor editorial

The next stage is to submit this report to the IUCr
Commission of Crystallographic Nomenclature who may refer some
parts back for further consideration or may approve the report as
it is. When approved by the Commission, it will be posted on the
web and published in Acta Cryst. over the names of the members of
the Working Group, namely:

David Brown (chair)
*Sidney Abrahams (chair of CCN ex officio at time the
working group was established)
+Michael Berndt (Crystal Impact)
*John Faber (International Center for Diffraction Data)
*Vicky Karen (National Institute for Science and Technology
and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database)
*Sam Motherwell (Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre)
*Jean-Claude Toledano (Chair, CCN working group on Phase
Transition Nomenclature)
Pierre Villars (Pauling File)
*John Westbrook (Protein Databank)
*Brian McMahon (IUCr, consultant)

I need therefore to hear from every one of you who has an
asterisk (*) by his or her name above that you approve the
report. Please reply to this email or send your reply to phase-
identifiers@iucr.org. When you send in your approval (or your
reservations) please keep in mind that you were selected for this
Working Group because of your membership in the organizations
listed after your name. Your approval will indicate that, as far
as you can tell, your organization would be able to implement the
phase identifier if it wished. I cannot submit the report until I have heard
from every one of you and until I get your approval I will
continue to send reminders. YOUR NAME WILL APPEAR ON THE FINAL REPORT.


The only comments I received on draft #2 of the report of
the Working Group on Crystallographic Phase Identifiers was from
Sidney Abrahams who suggested several corrections and
improvements to the wording to improve the accuracy and clarity
of the report. Those suggestions that do not change the meaning
have been made in the text, but Sidney also made three other
comments that have I have not included for the reasons given

In 6.3 Layer 7. Wyckoff Sequence
It would be more appropriate here to use the same Wyckoff site
order as used in ITA, i.e. number, followed by letter. It would
also be helpful if the example contained at least two sites with
multiplicity other than 1, so that it becomes, for example, 1a
2c 3f 6g or a2c3f6g, to avoid possible confusion with the
dropped 1 (which I agree should be dropped).

This is a misunderstanding of what the numbers in the Wyckoff
sequence mean. They are not the multiplicities given in
International Tables but the number of crystallographically
independent atoms that occupy these sites. The key sentence has
been clarified (by ADDING 'lower-case' and replacing 'accompanied' with
'followed') to read: "Each lower-case letter is followed by a
number indicating the number of symmetry-independent atoms
occupying sites of that kind (the default number is 1), e.g, 'a1
d1 i6' which is written as 'adi6'." The expression 'symmetry-
independent' is the key to the meaning of these numbers.

In 7.2.1 Composition, it is appropriate to provide a clear
definition of tolerance factor if it is to be required.

The tolerance factor is not part of the identifier. It is a
number chosen by the person using the identifier in a search.
Depending on the value of the tolerance factor selected, the
search can be made broader or more focused. The smaller the
tolerance factor, the fewer structures will be retrieved, but the
greater the chance of excluding a valid hit.

Sidney proposed adding the following wording in Section 8.1
"The combined IChI and CCN Phase Transition Nomenclature
identifier symbol provides, in principle, all the information
necessary to access the appropriate database entries available on
a given material."

The IChI is sufficient by itself to access all the database
entries available on a given material. Combining IChI with the
CCN Phase Transition Nomenclature will, unless very carefully
handled, actually reduce the chance of retrieving a relevant
entry if the search is performed by computer because of the
difficulty a computer has in handling the CCN Nomenclature which
allows for free text and non-ASCII characters whose
representation is not uniquely defined. The inability of the CCN
Nomeclature to be uniquely expressed in digital form was the
principal reason why the Phase Indentifier Working Group was

Please check the attached report and send your approval to
phase-identifiers@iucr.org as soon as possible if you don't wish
to receive reminders.


Dr. I.D.Brown, Professor Emeritus,
Department of Physics and Astronomy
McMaster University, Hamilton
Ontario, Canada

$ Lines beginning with $ are not part of the draft report.  
$ They will be deleted before the report is submitted.
$           DRAFT #3         2004-7-1

Andre Authier
IUCr Commission on Crystallographic Nomenclature

The undersigned are pleased to submit herewith the final report
of the Working Group on a Crystallographic Phase Identifier to
the Commission on Crystallographic Nomenclature.

     David Brown (chair)
     *Sidney Abrahams (chair of CCN ex officio at time the
                  working group was established)
     +Michael Berndt (Crystal Impact)
     *John Faber (International Center for Diffraction Data)
     *Vicky Karen (National Institute for Science and Technology
                  and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database)
     *Sam Motherwell (Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre)
     *Jean-Claude Toledano (Chair, CCN working group on Phase
                  Transition Nomenclature)
     Pierre Villars (Pauling File)
     *John Westbrook (Protein Databank)
     *Brian McMahon (IUCr, consultant)

+ Deceased
$ * Approval not yet received 
$ (The asterisks will be removed as individual approvals are
$ received)


The proposed crystallographic phase identifier consists of a
number of components (layers) describing enough properties of the
phase to allow a unique identification.  These layers consist of
the chemical formula, a flag indicating the state of matter, the
space group number and the Wyckoff sequence.  They are defined in
such a way that they can be incorporated into to the IUPAC
Chemical Identifier proposed by the International Union of Pure
and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). 

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has
been examining standards for the electronic representation of
chemical information, and as part of this effort it has
established a working group to propose an IUPAC Chemical
Identifier (IChI) which would uniquely identify any chemical
compound appearing in an electronic database.  The IChI working
group approached the Commission on Crystallographic Nomenclature
(CCN) of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) to
enquire if any conventions existed for a crystallographic phase
identifier that might be incorporated into IChI.  As the only
such convention already approved by the CCN on phase transition
nomenclature (Tol‚dano et al., 1998, 2001) is not readily
adaptable for electronic use, the CCN established the Working
Group on Crystalline Phase Identifiers to make recommendations
that could be of use to the IChI working group. This document is
the report of this Group.  

The Working Group carried out all its discussions by email,
initially independently of the IChI project, but the resulting
recommendations of the two groups developed structures for the
identifiers that are so similar that incorporating the
crystallographic phase information into IChI should be trivial. 
Our recommendations are therefore cast in the form of additions
to IChI, in the knowledge that the resulting identifier can be as
readily used by the crystallographic as by the chemical

The Working Group was charged with recommending to the IUCr
Commission on Crystallographic Nomenclature:

1. The best method of defining a crystalline phase identifier
that uniquely and unambiguously identifies each crystalline phase
in a way that would allow it to be used to link the same material
appearing in different electronic databases.

2. The best way in which this identifier can be implemented,
including its incorporation in the CCN recommended phase
transition nomenclature.

Keeping in mind that the primary purpose of the crystal phase
identifier is to allow the properties of a given material to be
located in different databases, the Working Group should consult
with appropriate crystallographic databases to ensure that the
proposed identifier will be acceptable. 

The following were appointed members of the Working Group:

     David Brown (chair)
     Sidney Abrahams (chair of CCN ex officio at time the
                    working group was established)
     Michael Berndt (Crystal Impact) [deceased]
     John Faber (International Center for Diffraction Data, ICDD)
     Vicky Karen (National Institute for Science and Technology,
                    NIST and the Inorganic Crystal Structure
                    Database, ICSD)
     Sam Motherwell (Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre,
     Jean-Claude Toledano (Chair, CCN working group on Phase
                    Transition Nomenclature)
     Pierre Villars (Pauling File)
     John Westbrook (Protein Databank)
     Brian McMahon (IUCr, consultant)

Early discussions revealed that many phases have not been
sufficiently well characterized to allow an unambiguous
assignment of an identifier, and in some cases phases have been
incorrectly characterized.  In these situations no identifier can
be expected to meet the requirements of the terms of reference 
but an identifier may be able to retrieve a number of possible
matches from which the user could make a final choice. 

For well-characterized materials the working group examined two
models.  In the first an arbitrary character string is assigned
to each crystallographic phase by a competent authority (similar
to the Chemical Abstracts Registry Number)  In the second a
character string is generated from the known properties of the
compound according to a defined set of rules.

The first choice was rejected on the grounds that we would be
unlikely to find a competent authority willing to take on the
project.  Such an authority would require external funding, since
it would have to assign identifiers on request in a timely manner
and would have to maintain a public list of the identifiers
already assigned.

The second choice has the advantage that the identifier can be
constructed by anyone with access to the information needed to
characterize the material.  The identifier can be kept to a
manageable size because it only needs to include sufficient
information to distinguish between known phases.  Even if more
information about the phase is available, it is not included in
the identifier if it not needed for characterization.  For
example, OsI3, which is known in only one crystalline form, is
fully characterized by its chemical formula alone and no further
information, chemical or crystallographic, need be included.

The first component of any phase identifier must be the
composition and, where necessary, the isomer.  Only then does it
make sense to identify the crystalline form.  Since IChI is
designed to identify the composition and bond topology of the
compound, the Working Group's job was to suggest an identifier
that would distinguish between the different crystalline forms of
a given chemical compound.

Before presenting the recommendations of the Working Group, we
give a brief description of the proposed IChI identifier which
has, however, not yet been officially adopted by IUPAC.

The IChI working group is recommending an identifier made up of
several components or layers:  

The first (top) layer, which is always present, gives the
chemical composition.  The lower layers, which constitute the
identifier proper, are included only if they are necessary to
distinguish between two compounds with the same composition.  

The second layer distinguishes between different isomers by
describing the bond topology.  It contains several sublayers or
levels, the first giving the bonding topology ignoring all the
bonds to metals, cations and hydrogen atoms.  The second level
adds the bonding to fixed hydrogen atoms, the third adds the
bonding to variable hydrogen atoms (to distinguish between
tautomers if this is needed) and the fourth level adds bonds to
metal atoms and cations and is used in the rare cases when a
compound forms different coordination isomers.

The third layer contains information on chiral centers and is
included only when it is necessary to distinguish between

The fourth layer is used to identify isotopically enriched
compounds.  Further layers can be added as needed.  For many
compounds only the first layer is needed and for most of the
others it is only necessary to add the top levels of the second

5.1 Construction of the IUPAC chemical identifier
At the time of writing the final form of IChI has not been fixed,
but sufficient details have been developed to allow the
definition of a crystalline phase identifier.  IChI can be
formatted in different ways, in particular as an ASCII string or
an XML file. As the ASCII string is more compact and easier to
follow, IChI is described below in this format.  In the following
example a slash, /, is used to separate the layers. 


The following is an explanation of the above IChI.  The important
items are the first three or four - the remainder in this example
deal with a description of the stereochemistry and will not
frequently be used.  

1.00Beta/                           # Version of IChI
C6H9N3O3/                           # Sum formula
# The identifier proper begins here
CT:7-4(10)1-2(5(8)11)3(1)6(9)12/    # Basic connectivity
H:1-3H,(H2,7,10)(H2,8,11)(H2,9,12)/ # Hydrogen connectivity
SC:1-,2-,3-/                        # Stereocenters, sp3
I:(1D)/                             # Isotopes (H1 is deuterium)
SC:m/                               # Same as in main
is:0/                               # Inverted stereo (absolute
                                      stereo only)
ST:abs                              # Abs (absolute), rel
                                      (relative) or rac (racemic)
# End of identifier

The identifier may be followed by auxiliary information such as
atomic coordinates.  These are not part of the identifier proper
and are not shown here.  They are not further discussed in this

All but the first two items (which are required and are not part
of the identifier proper) are introduced by one of the following

"CT:";  /* connectivity */
"H:";   /* H-atoms */
"C:";   /* charge */
"DB:";  /* double bond stereo */
"SC:";  /* stereo centers sp3 */
"is:";  /* mark sp3 inverted stereo */
"SR:";  /* mark sp3 racemic stereo */
"ST:";  /* abs, rel, rac */
"I:";   /* isotopic atoms */
"fH:";  /* fixed H -- first item in non-taut */
"N:";   /* orig. at numbers in canonical order */
"NT:";  /* non-tautomeric orig. at numbers */
        /* in canonical order -- first item */
        /* in non-tautomeric aux info */
"E:";   /* atoms equivalence */
"tE:";  /* tautomeric groups equivalence */
"iC:";  /* inverted (stereo) Centers */
"iN:";  /* inverted sp3 stereo orig. atom */
        /*     numbers in canonical order */
"NI:";  /* isotopic orig. at numbers in */
        /* canonical order */
        /* first item in isotopic aux info */
"TR:";  /* transposition of components in */
        /* non-tautomeric representation */
"CRV:"; /* charges, radical, valence*/
"XYZ:"; /* xyz-coordinates */

The development of IChI has so far focused on organic molecules
and resolving isomers, tautomers and enantiomers.  Version 1.0
will therefore be restricted to describing the topology of finite
molecules and is not being designed to describe the connectivity
of infinite structures.  This should not present a problem for
devising an IChI for crystalline phase identification, because if
the composition and space group of an infinitely connected
inorganic compound are given (the two essential layers for any
phase identification), the connectivity is rarely needed.

We RECOMMEND that the phase identifier be included as part of the
proposed IChI symbol and that the crystallographic
characterization appear in IChI in three additional layers, which
are numbered 5, 6 and 7 in the recommendations below.

Note that it is only necessary to define the format of the value
of each layer.  The layers can be assembled in various ways as
they are in the IChI standard, e.g., as an ASCII string labelled
with tags (used in this document) or as an XML file.  There is no
canonical form for the whole identifier, only for the individual
layers which may be used with or without their associated tag. 

6.1 Layer 5: State of Matter
This layer gives the state of matter: gas, liquid, crystal etc.
according to the following enumeration list:
            gas         gas phase
            liq         liquid phase
            sol         solid phase of unknown form
            xtl         crystalline solid
            qxl         quasi-crystal
            ams         amorphous solid
            lxl         liquid crystal or other anomalous
                                quasi-liquid phase

Only if this flag is set to xtl would layers 6 and 7 be needed. 
A crystal is defined as a phase for which, in principle, it is
possible to assign one of the 230 space groups listed in
International Tables for Crystallography Vol. A, even if that
space group is only a subgroup of the full space group (as in the
case of aperiodic structures).   The presence therefore of a
space group field implies that the state of matter is xtl.  In
the case where the space group is given, the state of matter
field is redundant and may be omitted (though it is included in
some of the examples below by way of illustration).

6.2 Layer 6: Space Group
This layer contains the space group number as given in
International Tables for Crystallography Vol. A.  It consists of
a number between 1 and 230 that uniquely identifies the space
group type except for aperiodic crystals, cf. Jansen et
al.(2002).  The only ambiguity occurs for space groups such as
P41 (76) and P43 (78) that are identical except for their
chirality which is more appropriately identified in the IChI
stereochemistry layer.  Chirality is an important molecular
property but the chirality of a crystal, which is often not
determined, is usually only of interest if the crystal contains a
chiral molecule.  Chiral space groups should therefore be treated
as equivalent.  We recommend that only the lowest number of each
chiral pair of space groups be given, but search algorithms
should equivalence these pairs in case the higher space group
number is inadvertently used.  The equivalent space groups are
listed below.

Problems in assigning the space group can arise in several
situations.  Many inorganic compounds have polymorphs with
similar structures that crystallize in different, but related,
space groups.  In these cases it is easy to assign the wrong
space group, if only a subcell of the true crystallographic unit
cell is reported.  Incommensurately modulated structures, which
are frequently associated with polymorphism, have additional
symmetries that do not appear in the standard table of space
groups.  Usually an average space group can be assigned, but
this is not always unique. Quasicrystals cannot be assigned a
conventional space group and are best treated as a different
state of matter (see Section 6.1 above). 

6.3 Layer 7. Wyckoff Sequence
In the rare event that two phases of the same compound have the
same space group, the Wyckoff sequence can be given.  This is a
list containing the Wyckoff letters associated with the occupied
special positions (sites of high symmetry).  Details of the
special positions and their Wyckoff letters for all 230 space
groups are given in International Tables for Crystallography Vol.
A.  Each lower-case letter is followed by a number indicating the
number of symmetry-independent atoms occupying sites of that kind
(the default number is 1), e.g, 'a1 d1 i6' which is written as
'adi6'.  The enumeration list contains all the letters of the
alphabet plus & for 'alpha' and the letters are listed in
alphabetic order.  Before determining the Wyckoff sequence it is
essential that the structure be standardized using the program
STRUCTURE TIDY or other program using the same algorithm. Details
are given in Section 7.2.4.

6.4 Possible further layers.
There are a few cases where the layers proposed above do not
fully differentiate between distinct phases of the same compound. 
For example metallic iron (see Section 8.2 below) has two body
centered cubic phases separated by a face centered cubic phase. 
These two phases have exactly the same identifier using the
layers defined above.  However, they could be differentiated
using their reduced cells.  With experience in using the layers
defined above the need for further layers may become apparent. 
At that time it would be appropriate to consider what further
layers should be added.  Possibilities include the reduced cell,
an incommensuration flag or an indicator of magnetic or electric

This section provides the text that should be inserted into any
IChI definition that incorporates the proposals of this document.

7.1 New tags
The following is a list of additional tags required for phase
identification expressed in the form of an IChI.  These would be
used in conjunction with existing IChI tags:

"PH:"  /* phase or state of matter. Allowed values are: */
       /* gas, liq, ams, sol, xtl, lxl, qxl */
"SG:"  /* Space group number, integers between 1 and 230 */
"WS:"  /* Wyckoff sequence, any lower case letters */
       /* or & (for alpha), possibly separated by numbers */

7.2 Formal definitions
7.2.1 Composition
The composition layer in IChI for a crystalline phase must give
the contents of the formula unit of the crystal.  This is a unit
in general no smaller than the crystallographic asymmetric unit
and no larger than the primitive unit cell.  It is NOT the same
as the formula of the molecule of interest unless the molecule is
the only component of the crystal.  All components, including
solvents of crystallization, MUST BE EXPLICITLY INCLUDED. 
Wherever possible the formula unit is chosen so that the
multipliers of the elements are integers with no common divisor. 
In cases where it is not possible to choose a formula unit
smaller than the primitive unit cell without using non-integral
multipliers, e.g., FeS1.83 = Fe1.09S2, La1.95NiO4.31 and many
minerals, the size of the formula unit is indeterminate and only
the relative multipliers are meaningful.  Testing should be
carried out in this case by normalizing the multipliers.  Any
normalization can be used but an obvious one would be to reduce
the largest multiplier to 1.00 and the others in proportion. 
When non-integral multipliers are encountered, searches should
include a tolerance factor to allow for experimental
uncertainties or to retrieve related compounds of the same phase
having a similar but not identical composition.  The tolerance
should be large enough to recognize that phase identifiers that
include trace elements are equivalent to identifiers in which the
trace elements have been omitted either because they were not
determined or because they were not considered to be important.
The size of the tolerance factor is not defined in this standard
and its choice will be determined by the nature of the required
search.  For example, a search on FeS2 might include a tolerance
factor of 0.2 to be sure of locating all examples of the phase.

7.2.2 PH:  The state of matter  
Seven flags are defined for a number of different states.

          liq  liquid
          ams  amorphous  
          sol  solid of unknown form 
          xtl  crystal (capable of being assigned a space group)
          lxl  liquid crystal 
          qxl  quasi-crystal 

Only if the value of PH is 'xtl' will the following two layers be
meaningful.  Therefore if the SG: field is given, the PH: field
may be omitted.

7.2.3 SG:  Space group
This is a number between 1 and 230 inclusive, being the number of
the space group of the crystal as given in International Tables
for Crystallography Vol A.  The following space group pairs are
identical except for their chirality: 76=78, 91=95, 92=96,
144=145, 152=153, 169=170, 171=172, 178=179, 180=181, 212=213. 
Only the lower space group number of each pair should be used. 
The chirality is often not determined and is only significant if
the crystal contains a molecule whose chirality is described
elsewhere in IChI.  However, one of the forbidden space group
numbers may be inadvertently used and software should be prepared
to convert it to its legal equivalent.  There are many cases
where the true space group is not known.  Different approximate
space groups might be assigned by different workers in which case
a valid match would be missed, but there is little that can be
done to overcome this problem.  Incommensurate phases should be
assigned the space group of their parent structure (the first
portion of the incommensurate space group symbol).

7.2.4 WS:  The Wyckoff sequence 
This is an alphabetic list of the Wyckoff symbols (letters) of
the occupied special positions. International Tables for
Crystallography Vol. A lists the Wyckoff letters for all special
position, that is, all sites having a crystallographically-
distinct site-symmetry.  Each letter is followed by a number
indicating the number of symmetry-independent atoms occupying
sites of that kind (the number 1 is omitted), e.g, 'a1 d1 i6'
which is written as 'adi6'.  The enumeration list contains all
the lower-case letters of the alphabet plus '&' for 'alpha' found
in space group 47.  The letters are listed in alphabetic order
but before determining the Wyckoff sequence, the structure must
be normalized according to the algorithm used in the program
STRUCTURE TIDY, see Parth‚ & Gelato (1984, 1985), Gelato & Parth‚

7.3 Examples
In both the following examples of IChIs that define crystalline
phases, the PH: field is not needed and the WS: field is also
probably not necessary, but they are included for the purposes of
Further examples are given in Section 8.2

Rutile        1.02/TiO2/PH:xtl/SG:136/WS:af2



8.1 Description of the IUCr-CCN phase transition symbol.
Recently the Commission on Crystallographic Nomenclature of the
International Union of Crystallography adopted a Phase Transition
Nomenclature (Tol‚dano et al. (1998, 2001)*.  

---------------- Footnote --------------------
* Available on the IUCr web page: http://www.iucr.org - under
Commissions/Commission on Crystallographic Nomenclature/CNOM
on-lineinformation/Structural Phase Transition Nomenclature.  
-------------End of Footnote --------------------

The phase transitions are identified by the two phases that
bracket the transition, so the nomenclature is more properly a
nomenclature of the phases themselves.  The IUCr-CCN Phase
Transition Symbol is composed of six fields defined as follows:
1. The common symbol used to identify the phase (e.g., alpha, II,
2. The temperature range (pressure range or other external
condition) in which the phase is stable.
3. The Hermann-Mauguin symbol and number of the space group. 
More than one space group may be given, or the Bravais symbol may
be given if the space group is not known.
4. Z, the number of formula units in the conventional unit cell
(though the formula unit is not defined within the symbol).
5. The ferroic properties.
6. The structure type.

Any field may be omitted if inapplicable or if the value is not
known.  As the symbol was not designed for computer use, the
formats are not tightly structured and may contain non-ASCII
characters.  The intent of this symbol is to include the maximum
identification information density for the phase, whereas the
philosophy of IChI is to include only the minimum information
needed for phase identification.  Both include the space group
but otherwise there is little overlap between them.  The two
symbols are complementary and serve different purposes.  The IChI
could be added to the CCN Phase Transition Nomenclature but it is
not clear where this would offer any advantage.  A method for
combining the two, should this be desired, is described in
Section 8.3.

8.2 Examples of the CCN Nomenclature and the IChI Phase
In each of the following examples the phase transition
nomenclature is given first followed on the next line by the
proposed IChI symbol. 

8.2.1 Three phases of potassium tellurium bromide (K2TeBr6)
Abrahams et al., 1984; Ihringer & Abrahams, 1984). 

I|>434K|Fm(-3)m (225)|Z = 4|non-ferroic|Type = K2PtCl6. 

II|434-400K|P4/mnc (128)|Z = 2|ferroelastic|3 variants.

III|< 400K|P21/n (14)|Z = 2|ferroelastic|12 variants.

8.2.2 Iron (Fe) (Donohue, 1974)

delta|1663K|Im(-3)m (229)|Z=2|non-ferroic|Type = W.Melting at
1808 K.

gamma|1663-1183K|Fm(-3)m (225)|Z = 4|non-ferroic|Type = Cu.

beta|1183-1043K|Im(-3)m (229)|Z = 2|paramagnetic|Type = W.

alpha|<1043K|Im(-3)m (229)*|Z = 2|ferromagnetic|Type = W. 
*Magnetic structure is pseudocubic.

epsilon|13GPa|P63/mmc (194)|Z = 2|-|Type = Mg.

Note that the delta and beta phases both have the body centred
cubic structure and therefore have identical IChIs, but they are
distinct phases with different cell dimensions.  The Wyckoff
sequence /WS:a/ is omitted because it is the same for both phases
and does not further distinguish between them.  The correct space
group of untwinned alpha (ferromagnetic) iron cannot be isotropic
Im-3m (229) but the deviation from higher symmetry is very small 
and the correct space group is not yet determined.  This
illustrates one of the problems that will be encountered in the
use of this identifier.  At worst, searching on Fe/SG:229 will
bring up a number of false matches.

8.3 Examples of how the IChI might be incorporated into the CCN
phase nomenclature 
The IChI can be included in the CCN Phase Nomenclature in several
different ways.  We recommend that the IChI be placed in front of
the phase nomenclature using vertical line separators rather than
slashes.  A double vertical line separates the two identifiers. 
If desired a program could easily split off the IChI for further
analysis.  The first example is the same compound as shown in
Section 8.2.1, the second example is the same compound as shown
in Section 7.3.


1.02|C4H15CaCl2NO4|SG:33|WS:ae28||XVI|<50K, 4GPa,<180K|
Pn21a(33)|Z=4|Ferroelectric|Nonmodulated ferroelectric
polarization along b

Since the IChI Phase Identifier is parsable, each of the layers
can be formatted and stored in any way that suits the needs of a
particular database.  Most crystallographic databases will
already have fields containing the sum formula and the space
group number, and can readily add a field for the Wyckoff
sequence if this is needed.  The 'state of matter' field, PH:,
would require a further field in the database but could be
omitted if the database contains only crystal structures.  The
canonical form of the IChI could be recreated at any time if
required or it could be parsed into its respective layers.  It is
not appropriate to carry out a search using the canonical form of
IChI.  Searches must be carried out layer by layer since two
different identifiers may not contain the same number of layers,
or the search may not be carried out to its full depth if, for
example, chirality or isotopic content were not important.

All the proposed layers can be searched by looking for identical
bit sequences, though the SG: field should be initially screened
for illegal numbers, and the composition field should be
normalized if non-integral multipliers are present.


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J. Chem. Phys. 81, 2082-2087.

Donohue, J. (1974). The Structure of the Elements. New York: John
Wiley & Sons.

Gelato, L.M., Parth‚, E. (1987). J. Appl. Cryst. 20, 139-143.

Ihringer, J. & Abrahams, S. C. (1984) Phys. Rev.  B30, 6540-6548

Janssen, T. , Birman, J. L., D‚noyer, F., Koptsik, V. A., Verger-
Gaugry, J. L., Weigel, D., Yamamoto, A., Abrahams, S. C. &
Kopsky, V.(2002). Acta Cryst., A58, 605-621.

Parth‚, E., Gelato, L.M. (1984). Acta Cryst. A40, 169-183,

Parth‚, E., Gelato, L.M. (1985). Acta Cryst. A41, 142-151.

Tol‚dano, J.-C., Glazer, A. M., Hahn, Th., Parthe, E.,  Roth, R.
S. Berry, R. S., Metselaar, R. & Abrahams, S. C. (1998). Acta
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Tol‚dano, J.-C., Berry, R. S.,  Brown, P. J.,  Glazer, A. M., 
Metselaar, R., Pandey, D., Perez-Mato, J. M., Roth,  R. S. &
Abrahams, S. C. (2001). Acta Cryst. (2001). A57, 614-626.


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